Mango is one of the delicious seasonal fruits grown in the tropics. The tree is believed to be originating in the sub-Himalayan plains of the Indian subcontinent. Botanically, this exotic fruit belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae, a family that also includes numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plants such as cashew, pistachio.
Each fruit measures 5 to 15 cms in length and about 4 to 10 cms in width, and has typical “mango” shape, or sometimes oval or round. Its weight ranges from 150 g to around 750 g. Outer skin (pericarp) is smooth and is green in un-ripe mangoes but turns in ripe fruits into golden yellow, crimson red, yellow or orange-red depending upon the cultivar type.
Mango comes in different shapes and sizes depending upon cultivar types. Internally, its flesh (mesocarp) is juicy, orange-yellow in color with numerous soft fibrils radiating from its centrally placed flat, oval-shaped stone (enveloping a single large kidney-shaped seed). Its flavor is pleasant and rich and tastes sweet with a mild tartness. A high-quality mango fruit should feature no or very less fiber composition and minimal tartness. Mango seed (stone) may either has a single embryo or sometimes polyembryonic.
Mangos are very low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. They are also an excellent source of dietary fiber and vitamin B6, as well as a good source of vitamin A and vitamin C. They are rich in minerals like potassium, magnesium, and copper, and they are one of the best sources of quercetin, beta-carotene, and astragalin. These powerful antioxidants have the power to neutralize free radicals throughout the body. Heart diseases, premature aging, cancer, and degenerative diseases are due to these free radicals that damage the cells.